[Zeusi dhe Tomorri – Zeus and Tomorr]

Ketu jane disa citate nga akademiku britanik Arthur B. Cook nga libri i tij “Zeus : a study in ancient religion”.

Ai shkruan: “Ka mundesi qe dikur Zeusi adhurohej ne Malin Tomorr afer Beratit, duke pare se si shqiptaret edhe sot e konsiderojne si te shenjte ate mal dhe se si perdoret edhe nga kulte te tjera.” Pastaj ai citon librin e J. Swire “King Zog’s Albania” (Londer 1937) ne lidhje me nje faltore ne Tomor: “Faltorja eshte ndertuar, ose te pakten keshtu me thote Baba Tyrabiu, mbi nje faltore te lashte pagane, keshtu qe Abaz Aliu trashegoi fuqite e tij mbinatyrore nga zoti pagan qe zevendesoi.” Ai permend gjithashtu shpellen e shenjte te bere nga Mahometi e cila ka “kalime qe nuk lejohet te ndoten nga prania e njeriut; dhe te cojne nen-toke…apo ne maje te Tomorrit dhe tek teqeja tek shkrepat siper Krujes.”

Ketu kemi deshmi direkte te nje tempulli te lashte pagan dhe qe Abaz Aliu eshte vetem nje fasade per zotin e vjeter Indo-Evropian te qiellit qe adhurohej nga shqiptaret. Nenvizojme ketu edhe legjenden e shpelles se shenjte qe lidh Tomorrin me Krujen. Tomorri dhe Kruja jane shpirterisht te lidhura, sipas kesaj legjende, dhe ne fakt ne Kruje gjejme nje tjeter vend te shenjte per bektashinjte. Te mos harrojme qe Kruja eshte edhe fortesa e heroit tone kombetar, mbi anen ezoterike te te cilit kemi folur tjeterkund.

Nje deshmi tjeter eshte ajo e R. Matthews tek vepra e tij Sons of the Eagle (London 1937): “Para qindra vitesh… na ishin dy vellezer, burra te shenjte qe jetonin ne Arabi. Nje dite, ata mberriten ne Shqiperi: askush nuk e di se si, disa thone nga ajri. Me i vogli gjeti shtepi ne Berat, ku respektohej per shenjterine dhe virtytin e tij, dhe u be shenjtori mbrojtes i Beratit. Por i madhi, Aliu, ishte luftetar i madh. Ai kaleronte pergjate vendit maje kalit te tij te mrekullueshem, duke sfiduar dhe mposhtur barbaret qe jetonin rrotull. Kali i tij mund te levizte disa kilometra me nje kercim te vetem. Shenjat e patkonjve te tij dallohen edhe sot ne Tomor… Erdhi nje dite qe Aliu i mposhti te gjithe armiqte e tij. Ai u terhoq tek maja e Tomorrit, tek vendi ku faltorja e tij ndodhet sot. Per tre dite meditoi i vetmuar mbi fatin e armiqve te tij dhe fatin e vendit te tij, Shqiperise. Pastaj u ul per nje here te fundit mbi kalin e tij. Permes ajrit, ai kale e coi maje Olimpit, ne Greqi dhe ai jeton aty pergjithmone. Por cdo vit, ne 15 Gusht, ne diten kur ai dhe vellai i tij erdhen per here te pare ne kete vend, ai kthehet tek maja e Tomorrit. Ai rri aty tre dite dhe merr homazh nga populli i tij. Per kete arsye dhe per shkak te mbrojtes se tij qe si te Krishteret ashtu edhe Muslimanet bejne pelegrinazh cdo vit ne Tomorr dhe bejne sakrifica tek faltorja.”

Autori komenton mbi pjesen me te rendesishme te legjendes: “Te jetosh pergjithmone mbi Olimp… atehere shqiptaret ende i japin homazh Zeusit, nen kete maske te holle te Aliut.” Ne kete legjende mund te dallojme sistemin Indo-Evropian te tre kastave. Nje vella eshte shenjtor (kasta prifterore), tjetri eshte luftetar (kasta luftetare), dhe populli i thjeshte u jep homazh ketyre (kasta e prodhuesve). Per me teper, shenjat e lena pas nga patkonjte e kalit na kujtojne nje legjende tjeter mbi kalin e Skenderbeut, ku dhe ai linte shenja patkoi ne male. Arthur B. Cook thote dicka me shume per traditen pagane shqiptare dhe Dodonen: “Zoti Matthews e mbaron narrativen e tij duke theksuar ngjashmerine mes Tomorrit ne veri dhe Tomarosit ne jug, ky i fundit prane Dodones: ‘diku afer Tomorrit sot ka nje fshat, edhe ai i quajtur Tomor. Mbi te eshte nje mori rrenojash, deri me tash te paeksploruara, dhe njhen nga banoret si Qyteti. Me e madhja mes tyre quhet Dodona.’ (ibid. fq. 286).”

Hugh Hunt u ngjit ne Tomorr ne 1929 dhe pershkruan se si beheshin sakrificat ne Tomorr para komunizmit: “Mesuam qe behet nje pelegrinazh ne majen e malit Tomorr, dhe aty sakrifikohej nje dem i bardhe, prandaj iu bashkuam dhe ne ketij festivale. Diten ne vijim u cuam ne agim dhe filluam te ngjiteshim. Nje ushtri me murgj po vinin me ne – nja dyzet gjithsej – dhe disa sherbetore. Ngjitja ishte e lodhshme dhe dita ishte e vapshme. Maja ishte e rrethuar nga rete – nje shenje e mire, sipas murgjve, sepse kjo tregonte pranine e ZEFS, te cilit do ia jepnim kete sakrifice. Kjo me interesonte, pasi edhe pse dija ime mbi mitologjine greke ishte e vogel, fillova te shikoja nje lidhje mes Zeusit dhe kesaj hyjnie te reve. Por pyetjet qe bera nuk me bene shume pune; murgjit dinin po aq pak sa une; ceremonia ishte nje rit vjetor – apo edhe me e shpeshte, pasi me thane qe edhe Shen Gjergjin e festonin keshtu, por per kete nuk mund te jem i sigurt. Arritem majen – vone gjate dites – dhe aty gjetem demin, te cilin e kishin sjelle me heret fshataret, te cilet kishin ndezur edhe zjarrin. […] Kryemurgu beri lutje; dhe demi, tashme i liruar nga dhimja, u ngrit ne nje strukture prej druri dhe u poq. Me sa mbaj mend, kishte nje tufe lulesh rreth qafes; por keto iu vune pasi ngordhi. Ika me heret se te tjeret, i shoqeruar nga perkthyesi dhe shoku im, dhe arritem ne fshat kur kishte rene nata. Se ca u be me demin si perfundim nuk e morra vesh kurre.”

Kjo nga kujton sakrificat qe iu beheshin Zotave ne antikitetin klasik. Emri i hyjnise (Zefs) eshte gjithashtu interesant. Na kujton fjalen shqipe Zot ashte si dhe variante te tjera te emrit te perendise se qiellit (Zen, Zis, Zojz).

Arthur B. Cook perfundon duke thene: “Konstatimet e mesiperme perfshijne nje shkrirje te trefishte te bektashizmit, besimeve folklorike, dhe elementeve te epokes klasike. Nga besimet folklorike vijne kali magjik, pasazhet nentokesore… Nga epoka klasike vijne shenjat e patkonjve ne mal, prezenca e Olimpit dhe mbijetesa e emrit te Zeusit. E me gjithe keto, shenjteria e malit, pelegrinazhi vjetor, dhe sakrifica solemne e demit te bardhe nga fshataret e mbledhur jane prova te shumta te nje kulti antik te nje perendie te qiellit qe ka vazhduar nga brezi ne brez, pothuaj i paprekur nga ndryshimet politike e fetare.”

Pra, Shqiperia eshte vendi i vetem ne Evrope ku prania e Zeusit vazhdon dhe kulti i tij praktikohet ende. Perandori Julian, qe te krishteret e quajne apostati apo fe-mohuesi pasi u kthye tek besimi pagan, kishte origjine nga provinca e Epirit te Ri (Shqiperia e sotme), dhe disa akademike kane pershtypjen qe duhet te kete ditur per keto tradita. Luften e tij do ta vazhdojme, por ka ardhur koha ta cjerrim masken e Abaz Aliut, uzurpatorit semitik, dhe te shpalosim adhurimin e Zotit shqiptar te Qiellit.

(English)

Here are some remarks by the British classical scholar Arthur B. Cook taken from his work “Zeus : a study in ancient religion” and that are worth reflecting upon.

He writes: “It is probable also that Zeus was worshipped on Mount Tomori near Berat, to judge from the sacred character of that mountain and from certain cult-usages reported by recent travelers.” He then quotes J. Swire’s book King Zog’s Albania (London 1937) about the shrine on mount Tomor: “The shrine was built, so Baba Tyrabiu told me, on the site of an ancient pagan shrine, so Abas Ali probably inherited his supernatural powers from the pagan god he displaced.’ He also mentions a sacred cave made by Mahomet with “passages which may not be defiled by man; and they lead underground…to the top of Tomori and to the tekke on the crag above Kruja.”

We have here straight from the horse’s mouth a testimony of an ancient pagan temple and the confession that Abas Ali is just a front for the old Indo-European Sky god worshiped by Albanians. Furthermore, we would like to draw attention to the legend of the sacred cave linking mount Tomorr with Kruja’s mountain. Mount Tomorr and Kruja’s mountain are spiritually connected, as this legend suggests, and the fact that in Kruja we find another sacred Bektashi place should not surprise us. Let us also not forget that Kruja was the fortress of our national hero. We have spoken of his esoteric significance in Albania’s tradition elsewhere.

Another testimony is that of R. Matthews in Sons of the Eagle (London 1937): “Many hundreds of years ago…there were two brothers, very holy men, who lived in Arabia. One day they arrived in Albania: no one knows how, some say through the air. The younger of the two set up his house in Berat, where he was highly venerated for his sanctity and became the patron saint of the town. But the elder brother, Ali, was a great warrior. Through all the countryside he rode on his wonderful horse, challenging and conquering the barbarians who lived around. His horse could cover miles at a single bound. You may still see the marks of its hooves on the rocks of Tomori… At last a day came when Ali had overcome all his enemies. So, he retired to the summit of Tomori, to the spot where the shrine stands today. For three days he meditated alone there on the fate of his foes and the future of his country, Albania. Then one last time he vaulted into the saddle of his great horse. Through the air it bore him to the top of Mount Olympus, in Greece, and there he lives for ever. But every year, on August 15, the day when he and his brother first arrived in the country, he returns to Tomori’s summit. For three days he remains there to receive the homage of his people. And it is because of that and because of his guardianship that Christians and Moslems alike make their pilgrimage every year and for three days offer sacrifices at the shrine.”

The author comments about the most important part of this legend: “Living for ever on Olympus… Then it was indeed to Zeus, under this so thin disguise, that the people of southern Albania still paid their homage”. We can distinguish in the legend the Indo-European tripartition. One brother is a saint (religious function), the other is a warrior (warrior caste) and the people paying homage is the common people (productive caste). Furthermore, the mention of the mark left by a horse’s hooves on the mountain is reminiscent of the marks left by Skenderbeg’s horse in another well-known Albanian mountain. Arthur B. Cook strengthens the link that we make with our ancient Albanian pagan tradition and Dodona by “Mr Matthews ends his narrative by noting the resemblance between Tomori in the north and Tomaros in the south: ‘if you go one way up Tomori today, you will eventually reach a village, itself called Tomori. Above it is a collection of ruins, so far unexplored, and known locally as Qyteti (the city). And the biggest among them is named by the villagers Dodona.’ (ib. p. 286).”

Hugh Hunt made the ascent of Tomorr in 1929 and describes how the sacrifice on mount Tomorr was made before it being forbidden by communism: “We learnt that on the following day a pilgrimage was to be made to the summit of Mount Tomori, where a sacrifice of a white bull was to take place, and accepted the invitation to join in this festival. On the following day we rose at daybreak and commenced the climb. The full complement of monks were in attendance—some forty in all—and a few servants. The climb was an arduous one and the day was hot. The summit was veiled in clouds—a good omen, the monks told me, for this indicated the presence of ZEFS, to whom this sacrifice was to be dedicated. I became interested, for although my knowledge of Greek mythology is remarkably small, I began to see that there must be some connection between this cloud-loving deity and Zeus. But questions proved of little use; the monks appeared as little informed as myself; the ceremony was an annual rite—or perhaps of more frequent occurrence, for I am of the opinion that they informed me that they celebrated St George’s day in like fashion, but I cannot be sure of this. We reached the summit— it was late in the day—and there we found a bull, brought up earlier by the villagers, and a fire was already kindled. […] Prayers were offered by the chief monk; and the bull, now happily released from pain, was hoisted on a stout wooden construction and roasted. So far as I remember, it had a garland of bright flowers round its neck; but these were, I believe, put on after its decease. I left earlier than the rest, accompanied by the interpreter and my companion, and regained the village after nightfall. What was the ultimate fate of the bull, I never discovered.’

This is very reminiscent of how classical antiquity’s sacrifices to the Gods were made. The name of the divinity (Zefs) is as well very interesting. It reminds of the Albanian word for god (Zot) as well as various forms of the albanian’s sky father deity (Zen,Zis,Zojz, etc).

Arthur B. Cook concludes: “The foregoing statements appear to involve a threefold blend of Bektashite usage, common folk-belief, and classical reminiscence. Folk-belief has provided the magic horse, the underground passages… Classical reminiscence will explain the hoofmarks on the mountain, the departure to Olympos, above all the survival of the name Zeus. Nevertheless, when due allowance has been made for all these factors, the abiding sanctity of the mountain, the annual pilgrimage to its summit, and the solemn sacrifice of a white bull by the assembled villagers are ample proof that the ancient cult of the sky-god on his holy hill goes on from generation to generation almost untouched by the passing changes of politics and religion”.

Therefore, Albania is the sole land in Europe where Zeus’ presence is ongoing and his cult is still practiced. The Emperor Julian, whom the Christian call the Apostate for his reverting to pagan beliefs, hailed the province of Epirus Novus, and scholars still have this feeling when they come across our traditions. We shall continue his war, but it is now time to tear apart the disguise of Abas Ali, the Semitic usurper, to reveal our Albanian Sky father and worship him as he should be.

One thought on “[Zeusi dhe Tomorri – Zeus and Tomorr]

  1. Pingback: [Zeusi dhe Tomorri per nje publik Polak – Zeus and Tomorr for a Polish public] | ALBANIAN THIRD POSITION

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